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What is the future of communication?

By the s, phone companies will be leasing digital lines to commercial customers. There are 23 computer centers across North America, communicating with radar stations, counter-attack aircraft, and each other — all in real-time, as potentially threatening events are happening. Besides networking SAGE also helps pioneer interactive computing and multi-user systems. Hundreds of people use the system simultaneously, interacting through groundbreaking graphical consoles.

Each console has its own large screen, pointing device a light gun , a telephone, and an ashtray. Ever on the alert for a Soviet attack, SAGE operators would describe the experience as endless hours of boredom…broken by seconds of sheer terror. But the system will operate until the s. In the s several visionaries including Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart independently suggest computerizing the concept of cross-references, creating the clickable link we use on the Web.

By the early s many people can share a single computer, using terminals often repurposed teleprinters to log in over phone lines. These timesharing computers are like central hubs with spokes radiating to individual users. Although the computers generally can't connect to each other, these are the first common multi-user systems, with dozens of people online at the same time. As a result, timesharing pioneers many features of later networks, from file sharing to e-mail and chat. Typical s users are a mix of business people, bank employees, students and researchers, and military personnel.

Using telephone lines, SABRE links 2, terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM computers, delivering data on any flight in less than three seconds. It remains the basis of modern travel sites including Travelocity.

The Internet: Global Evolution and Challenges

Used by Texas oilmen, the Carterfone acoustically connects mobile radios to the telephone network. Telephone companies sue in Users in some countries will wait until the s for similar freedoms. Modems create a kind of de facto net neutrality; telephone companies have no control over what is sent over their lines with a modem. Since telegraph days, people have been refining techniques for squeezing more connections onto a single wire.

Early multiplexers for computers let up to 15 terminals share the same line, by assigning each of them a particular frequency Frequency Division Multiplexing. In , a new generation of time-division multiplexers gives each user a small slice of time in turn, radically expanding the number of computer terminals that can share the same line — from 15 to This dramatically lowers costs for businesses, and the multiplexer market becomes highly competitive. Advances in acoustic couplers — the devices that let you connect your terminal to a regular telephone handset — also help more and more people go online.

For ninety minutes, the stunned audience of around a thousand witnesses collaborative editing, videoconferencing, word processing, and a strange pointing device jokingly referred to as a "mouse.

13. Network Protocols

Switched on in late October , the ARPAnet is the first large-scale, general-purpose computer network to connect different kinds of computers together. But others come online within weeks or months. The ERMA system had revolutionized behind-the-scenes check processing in the s, spawning the funny letters still at the bottom of checks today. During the s researchers in various countries have been working on bringing automation — and online transactions — to customers in the form of an Automated Teller Machine ATM.

The paper used by some of the first ATMs is slightly radioactive, to be machine readable. The s will also see rapid growth in behind-the-scenes financial transaction networks, like SWIFT for wire transfers. The two latter systems, based on work by Philips, broadcast data on an unused portion of the TV signal. They evolve into the Teletext information services found on most European TVs into the s.

In the early s email makes the jump from timesharing systems — each with perhaps a couple of hundred users — to the newly burgeoning computer networks. Suddenly, messages are free to travel anywhere the network goes, and email explodes. Nearly all other networks add email features. As the unmarked van drives through the San Francisco Bay Area, stuffed full of hackers and sometimes uniformed generals, it is pioneering wireless, packet-switched digital networks, including the kind your mobile phone uses today.

The van will also play a huge role in as a major birthplace of the Internet. Early networks successfully connected computers. Computers have to communicate down the hall, as well as globally. Local area networks LANs evolved from the early links to peripheral devices such as terminals and printers. SNA will evolve into an internet-like network of networks, albeit one reserved for those that were SNA compliant. The mids brings a number of commercial networks for corporate customers and professionals to choose from.

Most are packet-switched, like Telenet, Tymnet, and other major players. The ill-fated Datran and a couple of others are circuit switched like a telephone system. Anyone can walk up and use this terminal, connected to a timeshared mainframe computer, for posting messages and announcements. That's a radical idea when computers are mostly inaccessible to ordinary people, and seen by the counterculture as tools of government and corporate power. Until the late s the momentum in computing has been all about togetherness — users first sharing computers, then linking over networks and soon networks of networks.

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But the rise of the personal computer from the mid s makes something once unthinkable an everyday reality: a standalone computer for just one person. While the new machines can be connected to networks and to each other, a lot of users both at home and work don't bother.

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They run their own programs off of floppy disks. Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw, two students at the University of Essex, write a program that allows many people to play against each other on-line. MUDs become popular with college students as a means of adventure gaming and for socializing. By , there will be more than active MUDs and variants around the world. Personal computers have started to slowly take off in North America by the end of the s, a decade earlier than most other parts of the world.

Connecting them to remote servers can be a nightmare of endless settings and false starts, accompanied by the squawks and squeals of an expensive, finicky modem. By more than two million North Americans will be online for discussion groups, shopping, news, chat, e-mail, and more; the early online services have been joined by AOL, Prodigy, and others. This dial-up world pioneers much of what we do on the Web, though in a more communal setting.

As networked computers arrive in offices through the s and s, professional information systems continue to blossom. LEXIS which has roots in the computer utilities of the s provides access to legal cases. NEXIS adds a massive searchable database of news articles.

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DIALOG provides pricey information for businesses, and dozens of more specialized services address particular niches. John Shoch and Jon Hupp at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center create the computer "worm," a short program that searches a network for idle processors.

Networking & The Web | Timeline of Computer History | Computer History Museum

Initially designed to provide more efficient use of computers and for testing, the worm has the unintended effect of invading networked computers, creating a security threat. Shoch took the term "worm" from the book The Shockwave Rider , by John Brunner, in which an omnipotent "tapeworm" program runs loose through a network of computers. Combined with an entrepreneurial spirit, these digital skills can help you stand out in the job market, forget your own path, and even empower you to do work with a purpose.

People with IT and networking skills are in short supply worldwide. The U. Department of Labor estimates the employment of network and computer systems administrators will grow by 31 percent from to In Brazil, the IT industry is expected to grow by 3 percent through , with more than , jobs expected to remain unfilled in the next two years. The story is the same in country after country, from continent to continent. As organizations and institutions invest in mobile devices, cloud computing, social media, and big data, they depend on a workforce with the digital skills to make the most of these technologies.

For example, the hands-on, practical training Diana Nassar received through Networking Academy prepared her to thrive in a technical career and inspire other women in Jordan to follow in her footsteps. Networking starts with basic logic and connections. The only prerequisite for the Networking Academy IT Essentials course is an interest in technology and basic math and reading comprehension.

Proceedings of the 2018 Future of Information and Communication Conference (FICC), Vol. 1

If you are in or have completed high school, you probably have the skills you need to launch a networking career. In India, Anudip provides Networking Academy courses at centers , where 60, low-income women and youth have trained since Their experience shows that you can study networking technology at a broad range of educational institutions—high schools, community colleges, institutes, community knowledge centers, and universities—as part of your degree studies or while you work.

Digital skills give you an edge and an opportunity to make a career in almost any sector you can imagine: financial services, education, transportation, manufacturing, technology, government, hospitality, healthcare, retail… you name it. If you have an interest in a particular field, technology is probably part of it. For example, networking technology is transforming the healthcare industry, and students are finding ways to better use it in practice. Former military members are also enjoying the benefits of IT training.

Whether you see yourself with your own business, as part of a small company or inside a global corporation, networking basics open the door to help advance your career. What do we do with it? How do we condense, correlate, and sort it so that humans can base decisions on it? This is one of the major challenges facing all science, all society. There already exist many large electronic databases that serve a variety of purposes and special interests: electronic funds transfer, airline reservations, stock price quotations, credit card and check authorization, crime investigation, scientific research, and numerous others.

Databases that hold the results of DNA sequencing research or the astrophysical data collected by space-probing satellites are growing very rapidly and are expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Ensuring prospective users easy access to these databases is important, and achieving this goal becomes increasingly difficult as the amount of data in the databases grows.

There is a need for tools that will facilitate information access both in the narrow sense—access by specialists to the focused databases that serve their special interests—and in the broad sense—access by nonspecialists to information that is available to the public through news media, libraries, and general-purpose information services to which anyone can subscribe.

There is also opportunity for innovative work on information representation and presentation—hypertext systems that include multimodal representations provide a hint of the possibilities—and on the design of navigation aids to help users move around effectively and efficiently in multidimensional data-rich environments. For more on the topic of information access and organization, see Chapter 7. Most people, over the course of their lives, acquire a variety of types of information that they need or desire to retain for their personal use or reference: legal documents, medical records, financial papers, recipes, books, letters, pictures, and so on.

All of this information is, principle, storable. Also, because of the existence of computer networks and the connectivity to information sources they represent, people may acquire much more information that they wish to retain for personal use than they do now. If people are to efficiently manage large amounts of information in personal electronic repositories, if they are to keep electronic files accurate, timely, and retrievable and not find this a burdensome chore, they will need some tools and methods designed for this purpose.

Simply replacing paper files with electronic files does not ensure greater accessibility to information.